Rehab with Results

Best Physical Therapy's Health Information Library

Here, we have gathered health articles on almost every major subject in healthcare. Please explore, enjoy, and share this free resource provided by Best Physical Therapy

Steroids

You may have heard of anabolic steroids, which can have harmful effects. But there's another type of steroid - sometimes called a corticosteroid - that treats a variety of problems. These steroids are similar to hormones that your adrenal glands make to fight stress associated with illnesses and injuries. They reduce inflammation and affect the immune system.

You may need to take corticosteroids to treat:

  • Arthritis
  • Asthma
  • Autoimmune diseases such as lupus and multiple sclerosis
  • Skin conditions such as eczema and rashes
  • Some kinds of cancer

Steroids are strong medicines, and they can have side effects, including weakened bones and cataracts. Because of this, you usually take them for as short a time as possible.

Tetanus, Diphtheria, and Pertussis Vaccines

Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis (whooping cough) are serious bacterial infections. Tetanus causes painful tightening of the muscles, usually all over the body. It can lead to "locking" of the jaw. Diphtheria usually affects the nose and throat. Whooping cough causes uncontrollable coughing. Vaccines can protect you from these diseases. In the U.S., there are four combination vaccines:

  • DTaP prevents all three diseases. It is for children younger than seven years old.
  • Tdap also prevents all three. It is for older children and adults.
  • DT prevents diphtheria and tetanus. It is for children younger than seven who cannot tolerate the pertussis vaccine.
  • Td prevents diphtheria and tetanus. It is for older children and adults. It is usually given as a booster dose every 10 years. You may also get it earlier if you get a severe and dirty wound or burn.

Some people should not get these vaccines, including those who have had severe reactions to the shots before. Check with your doctor first if you have seizures, a neurologic problem, or Guillain-Barre syndrome. Also let your doctor know if you don't feel well the day of the shot; you may need to postpone it.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

Ureteral Disorders

Your kidneys make urine by filtering wastes and extra water from your blood. The urine travels from the kidneys to the bladder in two thin tubes called ureters.

The ureters are about 8 to 10 inches long. Muscles in the ureter walls tighten and relax to force urine down and away from the kidneys. Small amounts of urine flow from the ureters into the bladder about every 10 to 15 seconds.

Sometimes the ureters can become blocked or injured. This can block the flow of urine to the bladder. If urine stands still or backs up the ureter, you may get a urinary tract infections.

Doctors diagnose problems with the ureters using different tests. These include urine tests, x-rays, and examination of the ureter with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases

Urethral Disorders

The urethra is the tube that allows urine to pass out of the body. In men, it's a long tube that runs through the penis. It also carries semen in men. In women, it's short and is just above the vagina. Urethral problems may happen due to aging, illness, or injury. They include:

  • Urethral cancer - a rare cancer that happens more often in men
  • Urethral stricture - a narrowing of the opening of the urethra
  • Urethritis - inflammation of the urethra, sometimes caused by infection

Urethral problems may cause pain or difficulty passing urine. You may also have bleeding or discharge from the urethra.

Doctors diagnose urethral problems using different tests. These include urine tests, x-rays and an examination of the urethra with a scope called a cystoscope. Treatment depends on the cause of the problem. It may include medicines and, in severe cases, surgery.

Urinary Incontinence

What is urinary incontinence (UI)?

Urinary incontinence (UI) is the loss of bladder control, or being unable to control urination. It is a common condition. It can range from being a minor problem to something that greatly affects your daily life. In any case, it can get better with proper treatment.

What are the types of urinary incontinence (UI)?

There are several different types of UI. Each type has different symptoms and causes:

  • Stress incontinence happens when stress or pressure on your bladder causes you to leak urine. This could be due to coughing, sneezing, laughing, lifting something heavy, or physical activity. Causes include weak pelvic floor muscles and the bladder being out of its normal position.
  • Urge, or urgency, incontinence happens when you have a strong urge (need) to urinate, and some urine leaks out before you can make it to the toilet. It is often related to an overactive bladder. Urge incontinence is most common in older people. It can sometimes be a sign of a urinary tract infection (UTI). It can also happen in some neurological conditions, such as multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injuries.
  • Overflow incontinence happens when your bladder doesn't empty all the way. This causes too much urine to stay in your bladder. Your bladder gets too full, and you leak urine. This form of UI is most common in men. Some of the causes include tumors, kidney stones, diabetes, and certain medicines.
  • Functional incontinence happens when a physical or mental disability, trouble speaking, or some other problem keeps you from getting to the toilet in time. For example, someone with arthritis may have trouble unbuttoning his or her pants, or a person with Alzheimer's disease may not realize they need to plan to use the toilet.
  • Mixed incontinence means that you have more than one type of incontinence. It's usually a combination of stress and urge incontinence.
  • Transient incontinence is urine leakage that is caused by a temporary (transient) situation such as an infection or new medicine. Once the cause is removed, the incontinence goes away.
  • Bedwetting refers to urine leakage during sleep. This is most common in children, but adults can also have it.
    • Bedwetting is normal for many children. It is more common in boys. Bedwetting is often not considered a health problem, especially when it runs in the family. But if it still happens often at age 5 and older, it may be because of a bladder control problem. This problem could be caused by slow physical development, an illness, making too much urine at night, or another problem. Sometimes there is more than one cause.
    • In adults, the causes include some medicines, caffeine, and alcohol. It can also be caused by certain health problems, such as diabetes insipidus, a urinary tract infection (UTI), kidney stones, enlarged prostate (BPH), and sleep apnea.
Who is at risk for urinary incontinence (UI)?

In adults, you are at higher risk of developing UI if you:

  • Are female, especially after going through pregnancy, childbirth, and/or menopause
  • Are older. As you age, your urinary tract muscles weaken, making it harder to hold in urine.
  • Are a man with prostate problems
  • Have certain health problems, such as diabetes, obesity, or long-lasting constipation
  • Are a smoker
  • Have a birth defect that affects the structure of your urinary tract

In children, bedwetting is more common in younger children, boys, and those whose parents wet the bed when they were children.

How is urinary incontinence (UI) diagnosed?

Your health care provider may use many tools to make a diagnosis:

  • A medical history, which includes asking about your symptoms. Your provider may ask you to keep a bladder diary for a few days before your appointment. The bladder diary includes how much and when you drink liquids, when and how much you urinate, and whether you leak urine.
  • A physical exam, which can include a rectal exam. Women may also get a pelvic exam.
  • Urine and/or blood tests
  • Bladder function tests
  • Imaging tests
What are the treatments for urinary incontinence (UI)?

Treatment depends on the type and cause of your UI. You may need a combination of treatments. Your provider may first suggest self-care treatments, including:

  • Lifestyle changes to reduce leaks:
    • Drinking the right amount of liquid at the right time
    • Being physically active
    • Staying at a healthy weigh
    • Avoiding constipation
    • Not smoking
  • Bladder training. This involves urinating according to a schedule. Your provider makes a schedule from you, based on information from your bladder diary. After you adjust to the schedule, you gradually wait a little longer between trips to the bathroom. This can help stretch your bladder so it can hold more urine.
  • Doing exercises to strengthen your pelvic floor muscles. Strong pelvic floor muscles hold in urine better than weak muscles. The strengthening exercises are called Kegel exercises. They involve tightening and relaxing the muscles that control urine flow.

If these treatments do not work, your provider may suggest other options such as:

  • Medicines, which can be used to
    • Relax the bladder muscles, to help prevent bladder spasms
    • Block nerve signals that cause urinary frequency and urgency
    • In men, shrink the prostate and improve urine flow
  • Medical devices, including
    • A catheter, which is a tube to carry urine out of the body. You might use one a few times a day or all the time.
    • For women, a ring or a tampon-like device inserted into the vagina. The devices pushes up against your urethra to help decrease leaks.
  • Bulking agents, which are injected into the bladder neck and urethra tissues to thicken them. This helps close your bladder opening so you have less leaking.
  • Electrical nerve stimulation, which involves changing your bladder's reflexes using pulses of electricity
  • Surgery to support the bladder in its normal position. This may be done with a sling that is attached to the pubic bone.

NIH: National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases